Thursday, 11 June 2020

Seneca Village a Story of Removing Balck People from the Land to Build a Park- Central Park of Manhatan

An important part of New York City’s African-American heritage lies hidden in Central Park’s murky pre-history. Although it’s difficult to imagine a time when the 843 acres between 59th and 110th was not beautiful parkland, Central Park was once private property, occupied by a variety of businesses and residences, including an African-American neighborhood called Seneca Village. Located between 82nd and 89th Streets and Seventh and Eighth Avenues, Seneca Village was New York City’s first prominent African-American community, and its destruction displaced over 250 land-owning African Americans. Seneca Village was never re-established in another location, and its demolition is considered one of the great casualties of Central Park’s creation. 

Seneca Village was a 19th-century settlement of mostly African American landowners in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, within present-day Central Park. The settlement was located on about 5 acres (2.0 ha) near the Upper West Side neighborhood, approximately bounded by 82nd and 89th Streets and Seventh and Eighth Avenues, had they been constructed. 

Seneca Village was founded in 1825 by free blacks, the first such community in the city. At its peak, the community had 264 residents, three churches, a school, and two cemeteries. The settlement was later inhabited by several other minorities, including Irish and German immigrants. Seneca Village existed until 1857, when, through eminent domain, the villagers and other settlers in the area were ordered to leave and their houses were torn down for the construction of Central Park. The entirety of the village was dispersed except for one congregation that relocated.
Several vestiges of Seneca Village's existence have been found over the years, including two graves and a burial plot. The settlement was largely forgotten until the publication of Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar's book The Park and the People: A History of Central Park in 1992. The Seneca Village Project was formed in 1998 to raise awareness of the village, and several archeological digs have been conducted. In 2001, a historical plaque was unveiled, commemorating the site where Seneca Village once stood. 

Map showing the former location of Seneca Village (Egbert Viele, ca. 1857)


The land was originally purchased by a white farmer named John Whitehead in 1824. One year later, Whitehead began selling off smaller lots from his property. At the time, the area was far from the core of New York City, which was centered south of 23rd Street in what is now Lower Manhattan. On September 27, 1825, a young African American man named Andrew Williams purchased three lots from the Whiteheads for $125. On the same day, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion Church) trustee Epiphany Davis bought twelve lots for $578. The AME Zion Church bought six additional lots the same week, and by 1832, at least 24 lots had been sold to African Americans. Additional nearby development was centered around "York Hill", a plot bounded by where Sixth and Seventh Avenues would have been built, between 79th and 86th Streets. York Hill was mostly owned by the city, but 5 acres (2.0 ha) were purchased by William Matthews, a young African American, in the late 1830s. Matthews's African Union Church also bought land in Seneca Village around that time.
More African Americans began moving to Seneca Village after slavery in New York state was outlawed in 1827. In the 1830s, people from York Hill were forced to move so that a basin for the Croton Distributing Reservoir could be built, so many of York Hill's residents migrated to Seneca Village. Later, during the potato famine in Ireland, many Irish immigrants came to live in Seneca Village, swelling the village's population by 30 percent during this time. Both African Americans and Irish immigrants were marginalized and faced discrimination throughout the city. Despite their social and racial conflicts elsewhere, the African Americans and Irish in Seneca Village managed to live in close proximity. By 1855, one-third of the village's population was Irish. George Washington Plunkitt, who later became a Tammany Hall politician, was born in 1842 to two of the first Irish settlers in the village, Pat and Sara Plunkitt. Richard Croker, who later became the leader of Tammany, was born in Ireland, but he came with his family to Seneca Village in 1846, and lived there until his father got a job that enabled them to move.
The one-story frame-and-board houses in Seneca Village were referred to as "shanties", which reflected their roughshod outward appearance, though some of the houses resembled log cabins. While the houses were not professionally constructed, their interiors were an improvement on the cramped tenements of Lower Manhattan. Land ownership among black residents was much higher than that in the city as a whole: more than half of blacks owned property in 1850, five times as much as the property ownership rate of all New York City residents. One-fifth of Seneca Village's inhabitants owned their residences. Many of Seneca Village's black residents were landowners and relatively economically secure compared to their downtown counterparts. At least one property owner, the Lyons family, lived in Lower Manhattan but owned property in Seneca Village.
Nevertheless, many of the residents were still poor, since they worked in service industries such as construction, day labor, or food service, and only three residents (two grocers and an innkeeper) could be considered middle-class. Many black women worked as domestic servants. Many residents "squatted", boarding in homes they did not own, demonstrating that there was significant class stratification even with Seneca Village's high land ownership rate.
The residents relied on the abundant natural resources nearby, such as fish from the nearby East River and Hudson River, and the firewood from nearby forests. Some residents also had gardens and barns, and fed their livestock scraps of garbage. Two bone disposal plants were located nearby, at 66th and 75th Streets.


In 1855, a New York state census found that Seneca Village had 264 residents. On average, the residents had lived there for 22 years. Three-quarters of the 264 residents recorded in 1855 had lived in Seneca Village since 1840 or before, and nearly all had lived there since 1850. At this time in New York City's history, most of the city's population lived below 14th Street; the region above 59th Street was only sporadically developed and was semi-rural or rural in character.
After slavery in New York was outlawed, African American men in the state could vote as long as they had $250 worth of property and had lived in the state for at least three years. 

Of the 13,000 black New Yorkers, 91 were qualified to vote, and of the voting-eligible black population, 10 lived in Seneca Village. The purchase of land by blacks had a significant effect on their political engagement. Blacks in Seneca Village were extremely politically engaged in proportion to the rest of New York.

Community institutions

The economic and cultural stability of Seneca Village enabled the growth of several community institutions. The village had three churches, two schools, and two cemeteries by 1855, two-thirds of the inhabitants (180 of 264 total) were regular churchgoers. Two of the churches, First African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church of Yorkville and African Union Church, were all-black churches, while All Angels' Church was racially mixed
The AME Zion Church, a denomination officially established in lower Manhattan in 1821, owned property for burials in Seneca Village beginning in 1827. In 1853, the Church established a congregation and built a church building in Seneca Village. 

According to the New York Post, the cornerstone included a capsule with "a Bible, a hymn book, the church's rules, a letter with the names of its five trustees and copies of the newspapers, The Tribune and The Sun". The church building was destroyed as part of the razing of Seneca Village.
The African Union Church purchased lots in Seneca Village in 1837, about 100 feet (30 m) from AME Zion Church. It had 50 congregants. The church building contained one of the city's few black schools at the time, Colored School 3, founded in the mid-1840s.One of the teachers in the school was 17-year-old Catherine Thompson.
All Angels' Church was founded in 1846 as an affiliate of St. Michael's Episcopal Church, the main campus of which was located at Amsterdam Avenue and 99th Street.

 All Angels' was intended to be a mission to the residents of Seneca Village and nearby areas. At first, the church was hosted in a white policeman's home, but a wooden church at 84th Street was built in 1849. The congregation was racially diverse, with black parishioners from Seneca Village and Irish and German parishioners from other nearby areas. It had only 30 parishioners from Seneca Village. When the community was razed, the church relocated a few blocks west and was officially incorporated at the corner of 81st Street and West End Avenue.

Planning of Central Park

By the 1840s, members of the city's elite were publicly calling for the construction of a new large park in Manhattan. Two of the primary proponents were William Cullen Bryant, the editor of the New York Evening Post, and Andrew Jackson Downing, one of the first American landscape designers. The Special Committee on Parks was formed to survey possible sites for the proposed large park. One of the first sites considered was Jones's Wood, a 160-acre (65 ha) tract of land between 66th and 75th Streets on the Upper East Side. The area was occupied by multiple wealthy families who objected to the taking of their land, particularly the Jones and Schermerhorn families. Downing stated that he would prefer a park of at least 500 acres (200 ha) at any location from 39th Street to the Harlem River. Following the passage of an 1851 bill to acquire Jones's Wood, the Schermerhorns and Joneses successfully obtained an injunction to block the acquisition, and the transaction was invalidated as unconstitutional.
The second site proposed for a large public park was a 750-acre (300 ha) area labeled "Central Park", bounded by 59th and 106th Streets between Fifth and Eighth Avenues.The Central Park plan gradually gained support from a variety of groups. After a second bill to acquire Jones's Wood was nullified, the New York State Legislature passed the Central Park Act in July 1853; the act authorized a board of five commissioners to start purchasing land for a park, and it created a Central Park Fund to raise money.
In the years prior to the acquisition of Central Park, the Seneca Village community was referred to in pejorative terms, including racial slurs. Park advocates and the media began to describe Seneca Village and other communities in this area as "shantytowns" and the residents there as "squatters" and "vagabonds and scoundrels"; the Irish and black residents were often described as "wretched" and "debased". The residents of Seneca Village were also accused of stealing food and operating illegal bars. 

The village's detractors included Egbert Ludovicus Viele, the park's first engineer, who wrote a report about the "refuge of five thousand squatters" living on the future site of Central Park, criticizing the residents as people with "very little knowledge of the English language, and with very little respect for the law".  While a minority of Seneca Village's residents were landowners, most residents had formal or informal agreements with landlords; only a few residents were squatters with no permission from any landlord.


In 1853, the Central Park commissioners started conducting property assessments on more than 34,000 lots in and near Central Park. The Central Park commissioners had completed their assessments by July 1855, and the New York State Supreme Court confirmed this work the following February. As part of the tax assessment, residents were offered an average of $700 for their property.

The minority of Seneca Village residents who owned land were well compensated. For instance, Andrew Williams was paid $2,335 for his house and three lots, and even though he had originally asked for $3,500, the final compensation still represented a significant increase over the $125 that he had paid for the property in 1825.
Clearing occurred as soon as the Central Park commission's report was released in October 1855. The city began enforcing little-known regulations and forcing Seneca Village residents to pay rent. Members of the community fought to retain their land. 

For two years, residents protested and filed lawsuits to halt the sale of their land. However, in mid-1856, Mayor Fernando Wood prevailed, and residents of Seneca Village were given final notices. 

In 1857, the city government acquired all private property within Seneca Village through eminent domain, and on October 1, city officials in New York reported that the last holdouts living on land that was to become Central Park had been removed.

A newspaper account at the time suggested that Seneca Village would "not be forgotten ... [as] many a brilliant and stirring fight was had during the campaign. But the supremacy of the law was upheld by the policeman's bludgeons."
All of the inhabitants of the village were evicted by 1857, and all of the properties within Central Park were razed. The only institution from Seneca Village to survive was All Angels' Church, which relocated a couple of blocks away, albeit with an entirely new congregation. There are few records of where residents went after their eviction, as the community was entirely destroyed.

An Australian newspaper in 1920 had described "a famous old woman [...] still living at 90 years of age" in Hawaii, who was said to have been born in Seneca Village. By 1997, The New York Times reported that no one had been identified as a descendant of a Seneca Village resident.
Elsewhere in Central Park, the impact of eviction was less intense. Some residents, such as foundry owner Edward Snowden, simply relocated elsewhere. Squatters and hog farmers were the most affected by Central Park's construction, as they were never compensated for their evictions.
Some traces of Seneca Village persisted in later years. As workers were uprooting trees at the corner of 85th Street and Central Park West in 1871, they came upon two coffins, both containing black people from Seneca Village. A half-century later, a gardener named Gilhooley inadvertently found a graveyard from Seneca Village while turning soil at the same site. The site was named "Gilhooley's Burial Plot" in honor of his discovery.


The settlement was largely forgotten for more than a century after its demolition. Public interest in Seneca Village was invigorated after the publication of Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar's 1992 book The Park and the People: A History of Central Park, which described the community extensively.

Monday, 1 June 2020

Old Buildings Aurora Ontario Canada

The community was first known as Machell's Corners and had only 100 residents in 1851. The population of Aurora in 1863 was 700, and by 1869 it had grown to 1200. The settlement was incorporated as a village in 1863 with Charles Doan as the first reeve.

Aurora (2016 population 55,445) is a town in central York Region in the Greater Toronto Area, within the Golden Horseshoe of Southern Ontario, Canada. It is located north of the Town of Richmond Hill and is partially situated on the Oak Ridges Moraine. In the Canada 2016 Census, the municipal population of Aurora was the 95th largest in Canada, compared to 97th for the 2006 Census. Aurora has been ranked in the top 10 wealthiest towns in Canada

Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoegave the order for Yonge Street to be extended to Holland Landing in 1793, the first step toward the establishment of a community where Aurora now stands. Yonge Street opened between 1794 and 1796. In 1795, the first house in Aurora was built at Yonge St and Catherine Av. The government began granting deeds to land in 1797. By 1801 there were fourteen homes.

In 1804, Richard Machell became the first merchant at the crossroads of Yonge and Wellington and the hamlet soon became known as Machell's Corners. Charles Doan was another early businessman at Machell's Corners and became the first postmaster and later the first reeve. The post office was originally known as "Whitchurch".As postmaster, he was influential in renaming the village Aurora, after the goddess Aurora from Roman mythology.[7]:10[a] Machell proposed to rename the town "Match-Ville", ostensibly for the match factory in the town, but the name Aurora was more popular and ultimately chosen as the town's name.[12 Flour and grist mills were built around 1827. With the coming of the railway in 1853, Aurora emerged as an important centre north of Toronto. The Fleury plough works foundry opened in 1859, making agricultural implements.
The community was first known as Machell's Corners and had only 100 residents in 1851]The population of Aurora in 1863 was 700, and by 1869 it had grown to 1200.
The settlement was incorporated as a village in 1863 with Charles Doan as the first reeve. Records from 1885 describe Aurora as the "largest village in the county" an "enterprising and stirring business community" with several factories and mills, five churches, a school house with 210 students, and two weekly newspapers. The population in 1881 was 1540.The population reached 2,107 by 1888.
Aurora was the childhood home of Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada from 1963 to 1968, when his father, Rev. Edwin Pearson, was the Methodist minister 40
Aurora is noted for preserving its historical built form and in 2008 was awarded The Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership.] In 2009 the town received the Lieutenant Governor's Ontario Heritage Award for Community Leadership in heritage conservation and promotion.Northeast Old Aurora was designated in 2006 as a provincial Heritage Conservation District.
On April 8, 2010, the town re-opened the historic and fully renovated Church Street School as the Aurora Cultural Centre.
Aurora is twinned with Leksand, Sweden.
The Aurora armoury is a recognized Federal Heritage building, listed in 1991 on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings.
Aurora is also home to Hillary House and Koffler Museum of Medicine. Hillary House is recognized by the National Historic Sites and Monuments Board as one of Canada's best examples of Gothic Revival architecture.

The first train arrived on May 16, 1853. 
The old station, which has survived to the present with some minor alterations.

Monday, 23 March 2020

Star Forts

At the present moment 2020  there were discovered over 6000 star forts using Google map technology.

There are a huge number of different styles and designs of starfort - and on closer examination, they clearly had various uses and functions.
Variety was very important to the civilisation that built the starforts, consequently there are many variations based on a common theme.

The most common 'types' (presumably for living in, use as residencies and outposts, places of worship maybe, etc) are listed below.
These designs are intermixable and interchangeable, but we have to start somewhere!

We are attempting to develop a more in-depth set of descriptions for the structures involved in the starfort phenomenon, so that we can all understand one another when we are talking about the various different types. It will also help us, long term, to understand which structures were used where - and perhaps their function - and that they may not be 'forts', at all!

 Star 5-point

Example: Kastellet in Copenhagen, Denmark.

55°41'29.31" N 12°35'40.88" E

This lovely five-pointer still has it's original surrounding canal system intact. There are a quite a few of these still surving today, in many parts of the world - though most are no longer connected to the canal system they were originally a part of.

Five-pointers measure, on average, approx 250-400m from tip of one spear to the opposite side wall. Size can vary.

Almost always built on flatter ground with access to a main canal, they are also found in very close proximity to starcities, often forming the 'hedgehog' formation when attached to a starcity.

  Star 4-point

Example: Holic in Slovakia.

48°48'31.61" N 17°09'24.57" E

A well preserved four-point example in Slovakia.

There are many different regional variations of four-pointers - for instance, they get very 'spiky' in Spain and more 'pointy' in Russia,

 Star Megalopolis

Example: Floriana in Malta.

35°53'35.84" N 14°30'19.11" E

A massive construction involving many, many different aspects of the star civilisation's buildings and styles.

Alas, some of it now underwater, we suspect!


Example: Palmanova in Italy.

45°54'17.69" N 13°18'35.79" E

StarHubs have between 6 and 12 'points' i.e. Palmanova is a nine-point assymetric StarHub.

It will have been connected into the canal system in the same way everything else was within the star civilisation. You can actually walk around this city using GoogleEarth StreetView - check out where the canals used to be in what looks like the dried up moats surrounding the entire city. We know they're not moats though :)

 Star Hedgehog

Example: St. Martin De Re in France.

46°12'10.09" N 1°21'55.73" W

A Hedgehog incorporates both a Starhub and a four or five point star structure. 

Indonesia Star Fort.
 Utrech Neederland

Auxilliary structure at Utrecht, Netherlands


Advanced - the auxilliary structures, canal and crop systems that you may not have been aware were part of the Starfort civilisation.

These are the structures associated with the Star Civilisation that are not starhubs, hedgehogs, castles, five point or four-point structures.

They were connected to the system by a series of canals, which ranged in size from hundreds of metres across right down to tiny irrigation tracts.

There are a large number of these structures (some are still described by the mainstream as 'forts'), with a multitude of shapes and sizes, but all of them bear the distinctive aesthetic look and feel of the star civilisation. As our knowledge of the star civilisation grows, more will become apparant - and we may be able to work out their particular functions.

Many more of them were still present throughout the world in the 1940's and 1950's than compared to today - although the overgrown remnents of many still exist if you know what to look for.

Canal System

The entire star civilisation was linked together by an enormous and complex system of canals. From massive canals that linked major star cities and megalopolis, to comparitively tiny ones that irrigated  their crops - they were all part of an intricate, balanced and extremely effective means of transport and communication.

Later, many of the medium sized and smaller canals were filled in - and became the foundations for our road systems today.


Palanca, Romania 1720


Severin, Romania c1800

Found this drawing from c1800 marked as Orsova - but there's no islands in the river around Orsova, but just down the river at Severin there's the mostly covered ruins of a starfort - 44°36'41.13" N 22°41'09.08" E - maybe it's that. Looks like quite a bit of it may have been washed away.

Vienna, Austria 1780 1806



Wednesday, 4 March 2020

Lost Buildings of Toronto

What happened in Canada in 19 century? 
How did you imagine Toronto 150 years ago?
Here are some pictures from the Toronto Archives.


Pavilion, Horticultural Gardens (Toronto, c.1900) Demolished

Picture, 1907, English
Notes Inscribed in the print, l.c.: Pavilion, Horticultural Gardens.; Letterpress, in dark greyish red ink, u.l.: COMPLIMENTS OF / GERHARD HEINTZMAN, LIMITED / 97 YONGE STREET, / TORONTO.; Inscribed in pencil (by T.A. Reed), u.r.: cir 1895; In pen and black ink, vso t.: Pavillin Horticulturol Gardins
No records of who built it when was built.

 Kids in the field out front of Knox College (1875-1915), 1 Spadina Crescent. Toronto
138 years ago - 1882

Osgoode Hall before the dome, between the west wing and library, was removed
(Categorized under: Osgoode Hall )
1852 - City Hall

Osgoode Hall Library interior - stereo - Photographed by Armstrong, Beere & Rime, Toronto
(Categorized under: Osgoode Hall )
1859 - City Hall

 Osgoode Hall gates and pedestrians - half-tone photograph
(Categorized under: Ornamental gate --- Osgoode Hall )
  Saturday, April 23, 1870 - City Hall

Osgoode Hall Library with ornate ceiling and fireplace
(Categorized under: Osgoode Hall )
136 years ago - 1884 - City Hall

 The Independent Order of Foresters (IOF) built a grand arch . It was built in 1901, complete with flashing light bulbs, flags and crests, and a crown on the top, and was illuminated at night.  

It originally stood across Bay Street (Terauley Street at the time) at Richmond, just south of City Hall, outside the Temple Building (also known as Foresters' Temple or the the I. O. F. Temple). It was moved to the Exhibition Grounds by 1906. 
Now Demolished 

 Caer Howell Hotel (University Ave. at Orde St.)
(Caer Howell Hotel )
  1900 - Discovery District


Tuesday, 3 March 2020

Canadian National Exhibition Toronto, Ont.--Lost Architectural Buildings and Cultural History of Toronto

We Should ask why this concerted effort to destroy old buildings and old architecture of this city?

Who are the peoples behind it?
Are these buildings erased form the public consciousness? 
Canada is a large Country. There is plenty of space. Why not build beside them ? 
Why were these buildings destroyed?
In Europe they would have been rebuilt. Have we lost the ability to build such artistic buildings?
Has the consciousness of people something to do with it?

When people see beauty the spirit is uplifted. Is the reverse also true?

On the Terrace showing Manufacturers' and Women Building, Toronto Exhibition by night. Toronto, Ont.- All Buildings demolished

Picture, 1914,

Grand Plaza, showing Manufacturers' Building, Toronto Exhibition, Canada

Picture, 1912, English

Medium Printed ephemera. Postcard

Entrance to Manufacturers' Building, Exhibition, Toronto

Picture, 1910, English

Rights and Licenses Public Domain Medium Printed ephemera. Postcard

C.N.E. Horticultural Building. Demolished , showing south entrance

Picture, 1920, English

Crystal Palace - Demolished

C.N.E. Transportation Building Demolished

Picture, 1920, English
 Notes Inscribed in the photograph l.r.; Photographer's stamp on vso. See also TORONTO/C.N.E./BUSINESS MACHINES BUILDING. TEC 21.5A 

Entrance to Grand Stand, Toronto Exhibition, Canada

Picture, 1910, English
NotesInsc. l.r.: 105948. Insc. vso. Printed in Great Britain. C.N.E. Grandstand (1907-1946)Rights and Licenses Public Domain

Women's Building (1908) Demolished

Picture, 1952, English
Notes Salmon's negative envelope & print gave dates June 1952 & July 1952 respectively
 Rights and Licenses Public Domain Medium Film negative Call Number / Accession Number S 1-733

Collins Wireless Telephone Exhibit

Picture, 1909, English
Notes Copy photograph: E 4-96d. REPRO of E 4-96d. TEC 22A Rights and Licenses Public Domain Medium ½ plate glass copy negative
Branch Toronto Reference Library Location
Baldwin Collection Call Number / Accession Number E 9-251 Small

Horticultural Building -Demolished, looking north

Picture, 1952, English
Rights and Licenses Public Domain Medium Film negative Call Number / Accession Number S 1-715B 

Horticultural Building - Demolished

Picture, 1928  


Horticultural Building - Demolished


Dominion and Provincial Government Building, Toronto Exhibition - Demolished

Picture, 1915, English


Government Building - Demolished

Picture, 1913, English 

Entrance to Ontario Government Building, Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto. Demolished

Picture, 1928, English
Notes Inscribed in pencil, l.l.: Entrance Ontario Government Building / Canadian National Exhibition / Toronto-Canada; l.r.: W.H. Edwards

Ontario Government Building - Demolished

Picture, 1929, English 

Government Building, Toronto Exhibition, Canada - Demolished

Picture, 1915,

C.N.E., Graphic Art Building Demolished

Picture, 1900, English 

Art Gallery  - Demolished ( possible same building as Graphic Art Building)

Picture, 1952, English 

On the Grand Plaza, Canadian National Exhibition. Toronto, Canada - Fountain Removed

Press Building (1906) - Demolished

Picture, 1953, English 

Canadian National Exhibition. Administration Building - Demolished

Crystal Palace (1879-1906) - Demolished (Mud Flood?)

Picture, 1880, English 
Crystal Palace

Crystal Palace (1879-1906) Demolished

Picture, 1905,

Automotive Building - Demolished

Picture, 1956, English 

Automotive Building; Interior - Demolished

Picture, 1954

Scene in front of Manufacturers' Building Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto

Picture, 1906, English 
Another Scene from Manufacturer Building 

Manufacturers Building

Picture, 1913

CC.N.E. Transportation Building - Demolished

Picture, 1923, English


Inscribed in the photograph l.r.: X29485. TEC 21.5B
Anotherr View of the building

Transportation Building, Industrial Exhibition, Toronto, Canada - Demolished

Picture, 1903, English


Formerly known as the Crystal Palace (1879-1906)
Other View

Crystal Palace (1879-1906)  - Demolished

Picture, 1884, English
Notes Copy negative shows printed caption below photograph. Copy photos: E 4-95a; B 5-83a.
Perhaps from 'Picturesque Toronto', Toronto, 1885

Coliseum, Exhibition Place, Toronto, Ont. Demolished

Hornyansky, Nicholas, 1896-1965

Livestock Building - Demolished

Picture, 1913, English 

Electrical Building - Demolished

Railways Building - Demolished

Picture, 1952, English
Notes Building became Hydro Building in 1953, and later became Music Building. See also TORONTO/C.N.E./MUSIC BUILDING See also TORONTO/C.N.E./HYDRO BUILDINGRights and Licenses Public Domain

Agricultural Implements Hall, showing Association Offices at right  - Demolished

Picture, 1890,

Transportation Building, Interior - Demolished

Picture, 1913, English 

Women's Building - Demolished

Picture, 1906, English
Inscribed by Salmon in dark blue ballpoint pen, vso u.l.: CNE Woman's Building 1906 Shows inscription in the print, l.l.: Galbraith I Photograph Co. / Toronto Can.; The copy negative shows inscription (on mount?) l.r.: WOMAN'S / BUILDING

Grandstand (1907-1946) Demolished

Picture, 1920, English 

Band Shell - Demolished

Picture, 1952, English 

Band Concert, Toronto Exhibition, Canada

Picture, 1912