Tuesday, 12 July 2022

Ocna Sibiului

Date istorice

Salinele din Ocna Sibiului sunt menţionate prima oară într-un document din anul 1222, în care se aprobă Cavalerilor Teutoni dreptul de a transporta cu scutire de taxă sarea extrasă din salinele numite Ocne (salisfodinas quae Akana vocantur) pe teritoriul secuilor şi a românilor. Cercetările arheologice însă au confirmat că mineritul de sare la Ocna Sibiului s-a practicat cu mult timp înainte, deja în epoca romanilor. Romanii au extras sarea din gropi asemănătoare unor fântâni, ale căror pereţi cu timpul s-au surpat, găurile s-au contopit alcătuind gropi unitare, de dimensiuni mari. În urma infiltrării apei subterane, acestea s-au umplut cu apă, şi astfel s-au format cele cincisprezece lacuri sărate din vecinătatea estică a Ocnei Sibiului. De la începutul secolului al XIX-lea şase dintre aceste lacuri se foloseau pentru baie: Lacul Roşu Extern şi Intern [Lacul Horea], Lacul Verde Extern şi Intern [Lacul Cloşca şi Lacul Crişan], lacul Thököly [Lacul Brâncoveanu], aflat în partea sudică faţă de acestea şi Lacul Dublu [Lacul Verde sau Lacul Poporului] situat în vecinătatea nord-vestică a celui din urmă. La început în lacuri s-au scăldat localnicii şi sibienii în zilele de sărbătoare sau de târg. În aceea perioadă scăldatul în apa sărată era un obicei nou, astfel bineînţeles nici înotul nu era foarte răspândit printre localnici. Primele cabine de baie construite în anii 1830 au vizat siguranţa, şi erau construite în aşa fel, încât apa să fie accesibilă chiar din cabină, pentru a evita accidentele. Persoanele mai îndrăzneţe s-au scăldat mai departe de mal, ţinându-se de frâghiile agăţate în diagonală deasupra lacului. În acea perioadă băile erau încă comune, bărbaţii, femeile şi copiii se scăldau împreună. După întocmirea primului regulament, apărut la mijlocul secolului, bărbaţii şi femeile au mers la scăldat conform unui orar prestabilit. Prima clădire destul de primitivă, care dovedeşte în acelaşi timp recunoşterea efectului curativ al apelor, a fost o clădire dotată cu vestiare pe malul Lacului Dublu, construită de funcţionarii fiscali pentru folosinţă proprie.

 

Analizele chimice au jucat un rol important în recunoaşterea oficială a băilor, dovedind în mod ştiinţific efectul curativ al apelor sărate de la Ocna Sibiului. Prima analiză de acest gen a fost efectuată în anul 1820 de renumitul medic transilvănean, Sámuel Pataki. Rezultatele au atras în anii următori tot mai multe persoane dornice să facă baie la lacurile din Ocna Sibiului. În ciuda acestui fapt până în anii 1830 nu au existat alte construcţii exceptând cele mai sus menţionate. Prima investiţie publică a fost efectuată în 1835, când contele Ferenc Nádasdy construieşte pe cheltuială proprie prima casă de baie comună aflată pe malul Lacului Roşu. În 1844 s-a efectuat o nouă analiză chimică, în urma căreia în 1846 s-a înfiinţat staţiunea balneară de la Ocna Sibiului. Din această perioadă provin primele descriei ale băilor Ocna Sibiului, redactate de medicul aşezării, Mózes Kósa. În cartea sa intitulată A vizaknai kamarai iblanyos sósforrások vegy- és gyógytani tekintetben összehasonlítva a külhon e nemű jeles sósforrásaival [Comparaţia izvoarelor sărate de la Ocna Sibiului cu cele din străinătate din punctul de vedere al compoziţiei chimice şi al efectului curativ], publicată în anul 1847 pe lângă prezentarea caracteristicilor chimice şi medicale, el se gândeşte şi la viitor, menţionând şi neajunsurile băilor din Ocna Sibiului, printre care lipsa unei clădiri de băi calde era cea mai stringentă. După repetate solicitări în anul 1856 a fost aprobată construirea unei clădiri de băi calde împreună cu un şir de cabine şi o alee acoperită. Începând cu acesta putem vorbi de folosirea sistematică şi formarea conştientă a staţiunii.

 

Concentraţia excesivă a sării în sol a îngreunat mult amenajarea parcului şi plantarea arborilor. După încercări repetate s-au pus totuşi bazele care a fost extins constant în deceniile următoare. În 1879 au avut loc noi transformări: s-a amenajat malul sud-estic al Lacului Verde, unde s-a construit aleea Áttekintő [Panoramă], de unde s-a putut vedea întreaga staţiune. Pe dealul din spatele aleii s-a ridicat o construcţie elegantă din lemn, asemănătore glorietelor caracteristice parcurilor istorice. În 1886 s-au prevăzut reamenajări de amploare. Proiectele au fost elaborate de inginerul Ernest Wohlfahrt, iar execuţia a început în mai 1887 sub conducerea antreprenorului Victor Borger. Salonul de cură (sala de aşteptare), respectiv sala de muzică (sală de conversaţie şi lectură) s-au construit conform proiectelor vizavi de băile calde. Dealul aflat în spatele lacurilor în direcţia sud-vest a fost încorporat treptat în parcul staţiunii. La început doar o alee mai lată comunica cu dealul respectiv, ulterior s-au construit în pădure tot mai multe cărări pentru plimbare. Staţiunea, din ce în ce mai populară la nivel naţional, era vizitată nu numai la sfârşit de săptămână şi cu ocazia sărbătorilor, ci şi în cursul săptămânii. În anul 1885 în apropierea băii s-a construit sala de aşteptare a gării. Odată cu începerea sezonului erau introduse curse de trenuri speciale din Sibiu, care erau pline până la refuz, astfel, conform relatărilor din aceea vreme, în zilele calde de vară călătorii puteau profita de o baie de aburi deja în tren.

 

La cumpăna dintre secolele XIX şi XX numărul crescător al vizitatorilor şi starea perimată a clădirii băilor calde a justificat extinderea şi renovarea complexă a staţiunii. Pentru remedierea situaţiei în 1901 inspectoratul băilor a elaborat un program detaliat, care includea o vilă nouă, o clădire a băilor calde, un salon de cură şi un coridor acoperit. Pentru proiectare s-au demarat negocieri cu arhitecţii Henrik Kotál şi Gusztáv Knötgen din Budapesta, însă colaborarea cu aceştia s-a întrerupt din motive necunoscute. În primăvara anului 1902 Ministerul Agriculturii l-a delegat pe Gusztáv Ladik la Ocna Sibiului pentru a stabili necesitatea investiţiilor planificate, şi în acelaşi timp pentru a întocmi un raport despre acestea. Această dispoziţie era motivată de o hotărâre generală a guvernului, care, drept urmare a popularităţii mari a băilor sărate din străinătate, avea scopul evaluării potenţialului celor din ţară. Pe lângă băile de la Ocna Sibiului au fost examinate şi băile de la Solivar de lângă Presov şi de la Ocna Mureşului, dar nici una nu dispunea de premisele naturale ale acesteia. În urma raportului favorabil s-a decis în mod oficial ca băile de la Ocna Sibiului să fie transformate într-o staţiune modernă.

 

    În ianuarie 1904, ministrul ungar al Agriculturii a publicat un concurs de proiecte pentru realizarea următoarelor clădiri la Ocna Sibiului: clădire a băilor calde, salon de cură, hotel şi culoar acoperit pentru legarea celor trei clădiri. Finanţatorul a întocmit programul arhitectural în conformitate cu cerinţele băilor moderne. Clădirea băilor calde trebuia să aibă secţii distincte pentru bărbaţi şi femei cuprinzând: bazine cu apă rece şi apă caldă, spaţiu de odihnă, încăpere pentru masaj, aerosol, pedichiură, frizerie, cabinet pentru medicul balneolog, bazin cu nămol, baie în cadă, respectiv diferite anexe pentru personalul de deservire. Salonul de cură, care în această epocă a servit drept loc de distracţie pentru oaspeţi, a trebuit să cuprindă sală de dans, restaurant, cafenea, sală de muzică, sală de conversaţii, bibliotecă cu sală de lectură, respectiv o cameră pentru jocuri de cărţi. Au fost depuse în total unsprezece proiecte pentru concurs. Deoarece toate proiectele au depăşit suma impusă de 510.000 coroane, s-a decis ca premiul întâi să nu fie atribuit. Premiul al doilea a fost acordat proiectului arhitecţilor Zoltán Bálint şi Lajos Jámbor din Budapesta, cu menţiunea că în cazul în care sunt dispuşi să-şi refacă proiectul, vor obţine premiul întâi. Cei doi arhitecţi au acceptat oferta.

 

    Arhitecţii, pe lângă arhitectura clădirilor, au realizat şi amenajarea interioară a complexului. Activitatea lor de acest gen nu este aşa de cunoscută, ca şi cariera lor de arhitecţi, totuşi din numeroasele comenzi de seamă, pe care le-au avut, putem deduce că făceau parte dintre arhitecţii de amenajări interioare de prim rang din Ungaria. În această postură s-au prezentat prima dată la expoziţia milenară. În 1900 ei au proiectat instalaţia pavilionului industriei metalurgice şi a pavilionului industriei casnice şi textile din cadrul Expoziţiei Mondiale de la Paris, respectiv interiorul sălii maghiare de la expoziţia de artă de la Veneţia din 1905. În cadrul acestei expoziţii a fost prezentat fotoliul lui Lajos Jámbor, al cărui tapet a fost proiectat de János Vaszary. Pe lângă aceste realizări au amenajat şi spaţii private, cum ar fi: vila lui György Zala, vila lui Miklós Ligeti de pe strada Stefánia, palatul Lederer (toate trei din Budapesta), castelul lui Elemér Bornemissza din Asuaju de Sus. În cazul  clădirilor din Ocna Sibiului arhitecţii au proiectat mobilierul din salonul de cură şi din hotel. În salonul de cură au avut în vedere evidenţierea eleganţei, în conformitate cu aceasta au proiectat fotolii şi canapele din piele potrivite pentru cluburi. În cazul hotelului au preferat mobile cu volume şi suprafeţe mari, ale căror ornamente erau incrustaţiile închise din lemn.         

 

În 22 iunie 1906 a sosit la Ocna Sibiului comisia de construcţie pentru o inspecţie la faţa locului cu scopul de a evalua caracteristicile geografice ale terenurilor din jurul lacurilor, respectiv de a iniţia consfătuiri în legătură cu asigurarea energiei electrice pentru băi. Cu această ocazie s-a stabilit data de începere a lucrărilor: 1 septembrie 1906. Practic însă această dată s-a amânat probabil până la începutul anului următor, deoarece în octombrie 1906 erau încă în toi licitaţiile pentru execuţia culoarului acoperit şi a lucrărilor de beton armat. Lucrările propriu-zise au debutat în primăvara anului 1907 şi au fost realizate de fraţii Grünwald din Budapesta, antreprenori importanţi ai vremii, iar lui János Incze şi asociatul din Oradea le-au fost încredinţate în principal lucrările de pietrărie, tinichigerie, zidărie şi de tâmplărie. Lucrările exterioare au fost terminate în 1910, cele interioare fiind finalizate până la deschiderea sezonul balnear din 1911. Odată terminate, băile noi nu aveau înfăţişarea unui complex clasicizant ca în proiectul predat la concurs, ci purtau amprenta stilistică a secessionului lechnerian, emanând atmosfera specifică a arhitecturii de la cumpăna secolelor XIX şi XX.

Descrierea edificiului

Complexul balnear se află în partea estică a aşezării. Clădirea băilor, aflată în vecinătatea străzii Băilor, este alcătuită din trei aripi. La sud de ea se află clădirea extinsă a salonului de cură cu planul pătrat, iar după aceasta urma clădirea hotelului cu mai multe etaje având planul dreptunghiular. Cele trei clădiri erau legate printr-un culoar acoperit, care, mulându-se de faţada salonului de cură aflat la mijloc, se termina la intrarea hotelului şi a băii calde.

 

Volumetria generală a băii calde este compusă din trei aripi, între care conexiunea se face prin coridorul din spatele faţadei principale. Faţada principală dă impresia unei faţade false, deoarece lungimea şi înălţimea acesteia sunt mai mari ca cele ale clădirii. Pornind de la marginea faţadei principale formele ferestrelor se schimbă treptat la fiecare segment de faţadă. La margini vedem ferestre dreptunghiulare cu colţuri rotunjite, acestea sunt urmate de câte o pereche de ferestre cu închidere semicirculară. Zona intrării este încununată de o impozantă fereastră de tip palmier. Suprafaţa soclului înalt este divizată de ferestre duble cu închidere semicirculară. Aceste ferestre, precum şi cele cu colţuri rotunjite sunt prezente pe toate laturile clădirii, nu numai pe faţada principală. Clădirea este marcată cu un coronament ondulat, de-a lungul căruia putem observa vrejuri mici, în formă de flori, modelate din tencuială. Dinspre strada Băilor sunt vizibile toate cele trei aripi ale clădirii şi cele două cupole ridicate deasupra aripii din mijloc. Între aceste aripi s-au amenajat curţi delimitate de un gard din fier forjat.

 

Salonul de cură este amplasat la sud-vest de clădirea băilor calde. Faţada principală spre lacuri este articulată de şirul de arcade decorate cu pilaştrii. Acestea odinioară făceau parte din culoarul acoperit, care lega cele trei clădiri. Zona plată a acoperişului a fost amenajată ca terasă, utilizată drept cafenea, de unde clienţii puteau vedea de la mesele lor grupurile de persoane care se distrau în lacuri. Volumetria clădirii este adiţională, aceasta observându-se în special la faţadele laterale ale salonului de cură. Pe faţada sudică se distinge – de la dreapta la stânga – prima arcadă păstrată din culoarul acoperit, urmată de o scară circulară, care urcă la terasa de pe acoperiş, apoi un rezalit de colţ. Faţada nord-vestică a salonului de cură este mai modestă, în spatele acesteia fiind înşirate anexele destinate personalului de deservire. Faţadele sunt articulate cu ferestre încheiate în semicerc, şi cu goluri în formă de inimă, care se pot observa pe faţada sălii de dans. Între golurile faţadelor şi de-a lungul coronametului ondulat au fost aplicate vrejuri stilizate din tencuială.    

 

Hotelul de odinioară – dărâmat în 2003 – a fost ridicat la sud-vest de salonul de cură, la baza versantului dealului. Hotelul apare ca tip de clădire în cea de-a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea împreună cu casa de baie. Datorită intensificării turismului acesta devenise la începutul secolului al XX-lea o clădire de sine stătătoare nelipsită din cadrul staţiunilor balneare. Hotelul proiectat pentru Ocna Sibiului a fost o clădire masivă, cu plan dreptunghiular. Au fost accentuate colţurile clădirii, precum şi axul median al faţadelor lungi, unde s-au construit balcoane diferite de celelalte şi acoperişuri pentru balcoane, cu coama teşită. Culoarul acoperit a fost adosat colţului vestic al clădirii în prelungirea acesteia, iar faţada sud-estică a hotelului a fost decorată la parter cu goluri asemănătoare arcadelor culoarului.

    Clădirile de la Ocna Sibiului au un rol deosebit în istoria arhitecturii secesioniste din ţară, staţiunea fiind una dintre cele mai importante complexe balneare construite în acest stil din Transilvania. Construită între anii 1907–1910, în secolul XX a suferit modificări semnificative. A fost dărâmat culoar dintre clădiri, şirul de cabine dintre lacuri şi clădirea cu structura de bârne a salonului vechi de cură. Parcul cu grupurile decorative de flori exotice şi cu straturile de plante a fost schimbat treptat, optându-se pentru gazon. Ansamblul de clădiri a suferit cea mai mare pierdere în 2003 cu ocazia reabilitării, când clădirea hotelului a fost demolată din cauza stării avansate de degradare în care se afla.



Bibliografie selectivă
Bakk Endre, Szabad és kiváltságolt Vizakna mezővárosának monográfiája, 1888. Manuscris. Biblioteca Muzeului Brukenthal.
Balteş, Simion, Ocna Sibiului, Bucureşti, 1986.
Gerle János–Kovács Attila–Makovecz Imre, A századforduló magyar építészete, Budapest, 1990.
Kósa László: Fürdőélet a Monarchiában. Budapest, 1999.
Nussbächer, Gernot–Pepene, Nicolae–Popovici, Bogdan-Florin–Nanu, Dan, Kreis Hermannstadt, Braşov, 2007.
Rigler Gusztáv, Erdély nevezetesebb fürdői 1902-ben, Budapest, 1903.
Savu, Popa, Ocna Sibiului – Un popas pe drumul sării, Sibiu, 2008.
Ştefănuţ, Ada, Arta 1900 în România, Bucureşti, 2008.

Friday, 1 April 2022

Radiation from the Cell Towers

https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=1406807166420015&id=100053754941784

Increase radiation from the cell towers.

Monday, 13 December 2021

Vanderbilt Mansion and Anderson Cooper


Anderson Hays Cooper (born June 3, 1967) is an American broadcast journalist and political commentator. He is the primary anchor of the CNN news broadcast show Anderson Cooper 360°. In addition to his duties at CNN, Cooper serves as a correspondent for 60 Minutes on CBS News.

Born into the Vanderbilt family in Manhattan, Cooper graduated from Yale University with a Bachelor of Arts in 1989. As a young journalist, he began travelling the world, shooting footage of war-torn regions for Channel One News. Cooper was hired by ABC News as a correspondent in 1995, but he soon took more jobs throughout the network, working for a short time as a co-anchor, reality game show host, and fill-in morning talk show host.

Cooper was born in Manhattan, New York City, the younger son of author, screenwriter, and actor Wyatt Emory Cooper and artist, fashion designer, writer, and heiress Gloria Vanderbilt. His maternal grandparents were millionaire equestrian Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt of the Vanderbilt family and socialite Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt, and Reginald's patri lineal great-grandfather was business magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, who founded the prominent Vanderbilt shipping and railroad fortune. He is also a descendant, through his mother, of Civil War brevet Major General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, who was with General William Tecumseh Sherman on his march through Georgia. Through his maternal line, he is a second cousin, once removed, of screenwriter James Vanderbilt. 

Biltmore Estate

 Biltmore Estate is a large (6950.4 acres or 10.86 square miles or 28.13 square kilometers) [also noted as 5,000 acres and 8,000 acres elsewhere on this page] private estate and tourist attraction in Asheville, North Carolina. Biltmore House, the main residence, is a Châteauesque-style mansion built by George Washington Vanderbilt II between 1889 and 1895 and is the largest privately owned house in the United States, at 178,926 square feet (16,622.8 m2) of floor space (135,280 square feet (12,568 m2) of living area). Still owned by George Vanderbilt's descendants, it remains one of the most prominent examples of the Gilded Age

Vanderbilt houses


From the late 1870s to the 1920s, the Vanderbilt family employed some of the United States's best Beaux-Arts architects and decorators to build an unequalled string of New York townhouses and East Coast palaces in the United States. Many of the Vanderbilt houses are now National Historic Landmarks. Some photographs of Vanderbilt's residences in New York are included in the Photographic series of American Architecture by Albert Levy (1870s).
The list of architects employed by the Vanderbilts is a "who's who" of the New York-based firms that embodied the syncretic (often dismissed as "eclectic") styles of the American Renaissance: Richard Morris Hunt; George B. Post; McKim, Mead, and White; Charles B. Atwood; Carrère and Hastings; Warren and Wetmore; Horace Trumbauer; John Russell Pope and Addison Mizner were all employed by the descendants of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who built only very modestly himself.

LocationBuncombe County, North Carolina, United States
Coordinates35°32′22.74″N 82°33′3.42″WCoordinates: 35°32′22.74″N 82°33′3.42″W
Built1889–95
ArchitectRichard Morris Hunt (house)
Frederick Law Olmsted (landscape)
Architectural styleChâteauesque
Websitewww.biltmore.com

Construction of the house began in 1889 and continued well into 1896. In order to facilitate such a large project, a woodworking factory and brick kiln, which produced 32,000 bricks a day, were built onsite, and a three-mile railroad spur was constructed to bring materials to the building site. Construction on the main house required the labor of well over 1,000 workers and 60 stonemasons.[6] Vanderbilt went on extensive buying trips overseas as construction on the house was in progress. He returned to North Carolina with thousands of furnishings for his newly built home including tapestries, hundreds of carpets, prints, linens, and decorative objects, all dating between the 15th century and the late 19th century. Among the few American-made items were the more practical oak drop-front desk, rocking chairs, a walnut grand piano, bronze candlesticks and a wicker wastebasket.

Driven by the impact of the newly imposed income taxes, and the fact that the estate was getting harder to manage economically, Vanderbilt initiated the sale of 87,000 acres (352 km²) to the federal government. After Vanderbilt's unexpected death in 1914 of complications from an emergency appendectomy, his widow completed the sale to carry out her husband's wish that the land remain unaltered, and that property became the nucleus of the Pisgah National Forest. Overwhelmed with running such a large estate, Edith began consolidating her interests and sold Biltmore Estate Industries in 1917 and Biltmore Village in 1921. Edith intermittently occupied the house, living in an apartment carved out of the former Bachelors' Wing, until the marriage of her daughter to John Francis Amherst Cecil in April 1924. The Cecils went on to have two sons who were born in the same room as their mother.

In an attempt to bolster the estate's financial situation during the Great Depression, Cornelia and her husband opened Biltmore to the public in March 1930 at the request of the City of Asheville, which hoped the attraction would revitalize the area with tourism.Biltmore closed during World War II and in 1942, 62 paintings and 17 sculptures were moved to the estate by train from the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. to protect them in the event of an attack on the United States. The Music Room on the first floor was never finished, so it was used for storage until 1944, when the possibility of an attack became more remote. Among the works stored were the Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington and works by Rembrandt, Raphael, and Anthony van Dyck. David Finley, the gallery director, was a friend of Edith Vanderbilt and had stayed at the estate.
After the divorce of the Cecils in 1934, Cornelia left the estate never to return; however, John Cecil maintained his residence in the Bachelors' Wing until his death in 1954. Their eldest son, George Henry Vanderbilt Cecil, occupied rooms in the wing until 1956. At that point Biltmore House ceased to be a family residence and has continued to be operated as a historic house museum.

Biltmore has four acres of floor space and a total of 250 rooms in the house including 35 bedrooms for family and guests, 43 bathrooms, 65 fireplaces, three kitchens and 19th-century novelties such as electric elevators, forced-air heating, centrally controlled clocks, fire alarms, and a call-bell system.[13] The principal rooms of the house are located on the ground floor. To the right of the marbled Entrance Hall, the octagonal, sunken Winter Garden is surrounded by stone archways with a ceiling of architecturally sculptured wood and multifaceted glass. The centerpiece is a marble and bronze fountain sculpture titled Boy Stealing Geese created by Karl Bitter. On the walls just outside the Winter Garden are copies of the Parthenon frieze.

The Banquet Hall is the largest room in the house, measuring 42 feet wide and 72 feet long, with a 70-foot-high barrel-vaulted ceiling. The table could seat 64 guests surrounded by rare Flemish tapestries and a triple fireplace that spans one end of the hall. On the opposite end of the hall is an organ gallery that houses a 1916 Skinner pipe organ. Left unfinished with bare brick walls, the Music Room was not completed and opened to the public until 1976. It showcases a mantle designed by Hunt, and a large engraving by Albrecht Dürer called the Triumphal Arch commissioned by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. The mantle had been stored in the stable for over 80 years. To the left of the entrance hall is the 90-foot-long Tapestry Gallery, which leads to the Library, featuring three 16th-century tapestries representing The Triumph of Virtue Over Vice. Elsewhere on the walls are family portraits by John Singer Sargent, Giovanni Boldini and James Whistler. The two-story Library contains over 10,000 volumes in eight languages, reflecting George Vanderbilt's broad interests in classic literature as well as works on art, history, architecture, and gardening. The second-floor balcony is accessed by an ornate walnut spiral staircase. The baroque detailing of the room is enhanced by the rich walnut paneling and the ceiling painting, The Chariot of Aurora, brought to Biltmore by Vanderbilt from the Palazzo Pisani Moretta in Venice, Italy. The painting by Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini is the most important work by the artist still in existence.



Question
Are we talking about wireless electricity in this building
Could this be devices to collect atmospheric electricity in top of the building metallic devices that transfer the electricity to the fireplaces?
There are theories that state that: "All fireplaces have two metallic statues/ devices in front of them and used to have probably a metallic plaques heated from the wireless electricity"








There was no economy for electricity in this halls.

 There are other theories that the builders of these castles were other that those provided by the official narrative. They were of a civilization destroyed by European invaders. They had advanced technologies that are hard to replicate now with our resources and knowledge the civilization of the "survivors".

According to Wikipedia:
Cornelius Vanderbilt (May 27, 1794 – January 4, 1877) was an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping. Born poor and having only a mediocre education, Vanderbilt worked his way into leadership positions in the inland water trade and invested in the rapidly growing railroad industry. Nicknamed "The Commodore", he is known for owning the New York Central Railroad. His biographer says, "He vastly improved and expanded the nation's transportation infrastructure, contributing to a transformation of the very geography of the United States. He embraced new technologies and new forms of business organization, and used them to compete....He helped to create the corporate economy that would define the United States into the 21st century."
As one of the richest Americans in history and wealthiest figures overall, Vanderbilt was the patriarch of a wealthy, influential family. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. According to historian H. Roger Grant: "Contemporaries, too, often hated or feared Vanderbilt or at least considered him an unmannered brute. While Vanderbilt could be a rascal, combative and cunning, he was much more a builder than a wrecker [...] being honorable, shrewd, and hard-working.

 An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time. The contract often lets the employer sell the labor of an indenturee to a third party. Indenturees usually enter into an indenture for a specific payment or other benefit, or to meet a legal obligation, such as debt bondage. On completion of the contract, indentured servants were given their freedom, and occasionally plots of land. In many countries, systems of indentured labor have now been outlawed, and are banned by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a form of slavery.

Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is the pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where the terms of the repayment are not clearly or reasonably stated, and the person who is holding the debt and thus has some control over the laborer, does not intend to ever admit that the debt has been repaid.The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined, thus allowing the person supposedly owed the debt to demand services indefinitely. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation.
Currently, debt bondage is the most common method of enslavement with an estimated 8.1 million people bonded to labour illegally as cited by the International Labour Organization in 2005. Debt bondage has been described by the United Nations as a form of "modern day slavery" and the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery seeks to abolish the practice.

Ancestry

Cornelius Vanderbilt's great-great-grandfather, Jan Aertson or Aertszoon ("Aert's son"), was a Dutch farmer from the village of De Bilt in Utrecht, Netherlands, who emigrated to New Amsterdam (later New York) as an indentured servant in 1650. The Dutch van der ("of the") was eventually added to Aertson's village name to create "van der Bilt" ("of the Bilt"). This was eventually condensed to Vanderbilt.

Cornelius Vanderbilt was born in Staten Island, New York on May 27, 1794 to Cornelius van Derbilt and Phebe Hand. He began working on his father's ferry in New York Harbor as a boy, quitting school at the age of 11. At the age of 16, Vanderbilt decided to start his own ferry service. According to one version of events, he borrowed $100 from his mother to purchase a periauger (a shallow draft, two-masted sailing vessel), which he christened the Swiftsure.However, according to the first account of his life, published in 1853, the periauger belonged to his father and the younger Vanderbilt received half the profit. He began his business by ferrying freight and passengers on a ferry between Staten Island and Manhattan. Such was his energy and eagerness in his trade that other captains nearby took to calling him The Commodore in jest – a nickname that stuck with him all his life.

While many Vanderbilt family members had joined the Episcopal Church, Cornelius Vanderbilt remained a member of the Moravian Church to his death. Along with other members of the Vanderbilt family, he helped erect a local Moravian parish church in his city.

Moravian Church

The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as [Herrnhuter] Brüdergemeine[ (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world, with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the 15th century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The name by which the denomination is commonly known comes from the original exiles who fled to Saxony in 1722 from Moravia to escape religious persecution, but its heritage began in 1457 in Bohemia and its crown lands (Moravia and Silesia), then forming an autonomous kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire. The modern Unitas Fratrum, with about one million members worldwide.

"Moravians founded missions with Algonquian-speaking Mohican in the British colony of New York in British North America. For instance, they founded one in 1740 at the Mohican village of Shekomeko in present-day Dutchess County, New York. The converted Mohican people formed the first native Christian congregation in the present-day United States of America. Because of local hostility to the Mohican, the Moravian support of the Mohican led to rumors of their being secret Jesuits, trying to ally the Mohican with France in the ongoing French and Indian Wars.
Although supporters defended their work, at the end of 1744, the colonial government based at Poughkeepsie expelled the Moravians from New York."

This text of wikipedia might mean that it was a conflict between moravian and native people.

More from Wikipedia:
"n 1741, David Nitschmann and Count Zinzendorf led a small community to found a mission in the colony of Pennsylvania. The mission was established on Christmas Eve, and was named Bethlehem, after the Biblical town in Judea. There, they ministered to the Algonquian Lenape. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania is today the seventh largest city in Pennsylvania. Later, colonies were also founded in North Carolina, where Moravians led by Bishop August Gottlieb Spangenberg purchased 98,985 acres (400.58 km2) from John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville. This large tract of land was named die Wachau, or Wachovia, after one of Zinzendorf's ancestral estates on the Danube River in Lower Austria. Other early settlements included Bethabara (1753), Bethania (1759) and Salem (now referred to as Old Salem in Winston-Salem North Carolina) (1766)."

Were these lands purchased or stolen?

"In 1801 the Moravians established Springplace mission to the Cherokee Nation in what is now Murray County, Georgia. Coinciding with the forced removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma, this mission was replaced in 1842 by New Springplace in Oaks, Oklahoma. Due to Civil War-related violence, New Springplace closed in 1862, and resumed during the 1870s. Finally, in 1898, the Moravian Church discontinued their missionary engagement with the Cherokees, and New Springplace, now the Oaks Indian Mission, was transferred to the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church.
The start of far-flung missionary work necessitated the establishment of independently administered provinces. So, from about 1732, the history of the church becomes the history of its provinces."



Links
http://fulltime-rv.blogspot.com/2012/05/visit-to-biltmore-estates.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Vt7bVV3b1Y
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelius_Vanderbilt 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debt_bondage 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelius_Vanderbilt 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moravian_Church 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biltmore_Estate 
https://www.biltmore.com/events/christmas-at-biltmore-daytime-celebration-1

Tuesday, 21 September 2021

King City- Kingsbridge Centre



Built in 1989

by Murray Koffler – founder of the Shopper’s Drug Mart and co-founder of The Four Seasons Hotels – as Canada’s first world class spa facility.

In 1992 CIBC, under the leadership of Chairman Al Flood, converted the property into a private state-of-the-art training facility for their leaders.

Purchased in 2001 by John Abele – The Kingbridge Centre was founded in 2001 by John Abele, cofounder of Boston Scientific and a global leader in the field of less invasive medicine. The Kingbridge vision was inspired by Mr. Abele’s passion for technological inventions, concepts and ideas made to benefit communities and society as a whole. His involvement in these areas influenced him to envision a living learning place that supports innovation where groups of people could come together to collaboratively solve problems. In January 2021, Mr. Abele made the decision to retire, entrusting the ownership of the Kingbridge Centre to the Pathak Family Trust and its affiliated entity Ekagrata Inc.

Purchased in January 2021 by the Pathak Family Trust and its affiliated entity Ekagrate Inc – The Kingbridge Centre will continue to deliver world-class residential convening, leadership development, corporate training, conferencing and retreat services while being committed to engaging with local community. The Pathak Family Trust is committed to upholding the standard of innovation, discovery, and excellence long represented by the Kingbridge Centre, and to continue the strong partnerships with local community, government and academia. Kingbridge’s new Chairman, Prashant Pathak, has been involved in Mr. Abele’s vision and mission alongside the Kingbridge team for over 15 years and is excited to carry on the legacy of collective learning, problem solving, leadership development and innovation. Mr. Abele will continue to advise Mr. Pathak and the rest of the Kingbridge team as Chairman Emeritus.

Mr. Pathak has begun to expand The Kingbridge vision by engaging with key stakeholder partners to harness the infrastructure of the Kingbridge Centre to drive economic prosperity by accelerating groundbreaking innovations that drive community transformation, and scale up environmental initiatives which make a positive impact in the world. Food, Agriculture, Energy, Water are four of the key focus areas of the Kingbridge Centre aligned with economic priorities of King Township and York Region. Programming will be developed and offered to support these objectives, help foster leaders and convene people who are interested to explore new ideas and collaboratively solve problems from a higher level of thinking, creativity, skills and shared purpose.

Due to COVID-19, from May 2020 The Kingbridge Centre has been serving as a Temporary Transitional Shelter for York Residents in need, through a partnership with The Regional Municipality of York and Salvation Army. This partnership is due to continue until June 2021. Looking beyond the current situation with the COVID-19 pandemic, the Kingbridge Centre team is looking forward to being a partner in supporting economic recovery efforts, and growing innovative businesses. Mr. Pathak’s extensive global network, experience with risk capital investing and building businesses will support those efforts. Plans will be announced later this spring.

Thursday, 4 March 2021

The Black Eagle Palace Oradea Romania

The Black Eagle Palace is the most spectacular secession style architectural achievement in Oradea, Romania.
The story of the Black Eagle Palace is linked to the new urban development vision of the city, given the reorganization of the Small Square (St. Ladislau Square), today Union Square. In 1714, on the site of the building located at the intersection of Independence street (strada Independenței) with the Square, there was a one-storey venue, called the Eagle Inn or the Town’s Beer House.

The old inn hosted most of the city’s major public events: balls, meetings, theatre shows or political events. Until 1761 it was only a small building with three rooms that accommodated the town hall. Then, in 1807 it was rebuilt, extended and it was added another floor, and after a second modification, in 1835, it became an important hotel in the city.

Sunday, 27 December 2020

Thomas Foster Memorial Uxbridge Ontario Canada


Thomas Foster was

born near Toronto, and raised in Scott Township north of Uxbridge where his father ran the Leaskdale Hotel. He became a butcher in Cabbagetown in Toronto, was elected M.P., and served as mayor of Toronto from 1925 to 1927. He also made a large fortune from real estate.

The Thomas Foster Memorial

[Photo]

Foster visited India in his late seventies. After seeing the famous Taj Mahal, Foster was inspired to build a memorial in his boyhood community, with a Christian adaptation. The Memorial was erected in 1935-36, and cost $250,000. It contains three crypts for Mr. Foster, his wife and daughter.

J.H. Craig, (1889 - 1954), was the principal architect of the temple. Together with artchitect H.H. Madill (1889 - 1988), they worked on an entirely new and original design based on Byzantine architecture.

An Unusual Contest

Thomas Foster held a contest to find the lady who could have the most children in 10 years.

[Photo]

An Unusual Will

to feed Toronto birds in winter.Included in Thomas Foster's will were funds:

for needy newsboys in Toronto.

to plant trees on roads leading into Toronto.

to apprehend poachers around Toronto.

for an annual inner-city school picnic.

for cancer research.

for the Leaskdale Sunday School.

to maintain the Memorial.

Thomas Foster (July 24, 1852 – December 10, 1945) was the Mayor of TorontoOntario, Canada from 1925 to 1927.

UXBRIDGE -- Just a few kilometres north of Uxbridge on Durham Road 1 sits the Thomas Foster Memorial

A picturesque structure, located on a hill on the east side of the road, the building was constructed by Thomas Foster in 1935-36 and contains crypts for Mr. Foster, a former mayor of Toronto, his wife Elizabeth McCauley and young daughter Ruby, who died at the age of 10.

 -

Not one piece of wood was used in the construction of the building, which features an octagon-shaped base which the building sits on, a stunning copper roof, carved stone and hand-painted eye-catching windows. The floors feature rich-coloured terrazzo and marble mosaics in symbolic designs.

Upon entrance, patrons cross the ‘River of Death’, in which floats water lilies and lily pads.

The list of other visually pleasing features of the property, which is designated under the Ontario Heritage Act, is simply too long to list.

It is certainly a place, though, where first impressions make an impact.

Count Corey Keeble among those who’ve experienced that. In the fall of 2013, Mr. Keeble was the Royal Ontario Museum’s curator and he visited the Foster for the first time. 

Some or all of the facility has been used countless times to film television shows and movies. Most recently, the popular CBC’s show Murdoch Mysteries took over the Foster for a season eight episode titled: Murdoch and the Temple of Death. The episode aired in January of 2015.

Others have written books to raise awareness about the Foster. In 2014, local author Conrad Boyce wrote ‘Jewel on the Hill: the story of Ontario’s Thomas Foster Memorial.’

“The diamond of Durham it was dubbed and it is definitely the diamond of Durham and beyond. It’s one of a kind,” says longtime Foster supporter and member of the Friends of the Foster committee, Bev Northeast.

The Foster Memorial is open to the public on the first and third Sunday of the month from June to September and is the site of a weekly concert series, Fridays at the Foster, starting in May each year.

Thomas Foster 

BornJuly 24, 1852
York TownshipCanada West
DiedDecember 10, 1945 (aged 93)
NationalityCanadian
OccupationButcher, Meat Cutter
40th Mayor of Toronto
In office
1925–1927
Preceded byWilliam W. Hiltz
Succeeded bySamuel McBride


Early lifeEdit

The son of John T. Foster and Frances Nicholson, Thomas Foster was born July 24, 1852, in Lambton Mills, Ontario. His family soon moved to Leaskdale, Ontario after his mother's death.

He started his working life as a butcher's boy in Toronto, until he saved enough money to purchase his own butcher shop for $50. The earnings from that business allowed him to purchase property which became the source of his eventual wealth.

Political career

He was first elected as an alderman for St. David Ward in 1891, then reelected in 1892 and 1894. In 1895 he lost the election, and did not return to council until 1900 as an alderman for Ward 2, a position which he held until 1909. He was elected to the Toronto Board of Control in 1910; however, he lost the 1911 election. In 1912 he was again elected Controller and kept his seat until 1917.

Foster served as a Member of House of Commons of Canada from 1917 to 1921. He was elected as a Union Government candidate in the 1917 federal election for East York. He lost in his party's nomination so he ran as an independent in Toronto East in the 1921 election but failed to keep his seat.

Foster returned to City Council for the next three years, then was elected as mayor in 1925. He was a great supporter of Hydro expenditures and loved flowers. As an alderman he fought for the rebuilding of the pavilion at Allan Gardens after it had been destroyed by fire. In his 25 years of civic service he earned the informal title of "Honest Tom". As mayor of Toronto he was reported to have saved the city two million dollars by rigid economics.

Foster was known to collect the rents on his properties in person, even when he was mayor. If a tenant complained about a problem, or wanted a bit of work done, Foster would go out to his car, get his tools and fix the issue on the spot.[1] His penny pinching eventually led to his defeat due to his refusal to raise police salaries.[1]

Later years and legacy

He was a great traveler and on one of his trips he was inspired by the Taj Mahal. In 1935 and 1936 he had a memorial temple constructed on a hill between Leaskdale and Uxbridge, Ontario, for his family at a cost of $200,000. The temple was designed by Foster with architects H.H. Madill and James H. Craig[2] and inspired by Mughal architecture and Byzantine architecture.

He died at the age of 93 and is buried in the massive mausoleum on a hill north of town on Durham Regional Road 1 which includes the remains of Foster, his wife and daughter. Foster left $80,000 in funds to maintain the property in perpetuity but the trustees spent the principal and the funds had dried up by the 1990s, leaving the Town of Uxbridge to take over responsibility for the monument. In 2013, it was estimated that $1 million was needed to repair and restore the building, a controversial task given that the entire budget for the municipality was only $14 million.

Among other things, Foster left $500,000 for cancer research, $100,000 for an annual picnic to be held at Exhibition Park for school children, and funds to feed wild birds in Toronto. Inspired by the Great Stork Derby, Mayor Foster also sponsored a contest to reward mothers for their skills at procreation. The prizes were $1,250 for first, $800 for second, and $450 for third. Four ten-years periods began and ended on his death date, and ran from 1945–55, 1948–58, 1951–61, and 1954-64.[3]

A bronze portrait medallion of Thomas Foster by Christian Corbet was publicly unveiled in 2009 and is permanently housed in the memorial.[citation needed]

He was also a member of the Orange Order in Canada.

Electoral record

Municipal

Federal

1917 Canadian federal election: York East
PartyCandidateVotes
Government (Unionist)Thomas Foster9,736
LiberalRoss Collier Cockburn5,758
LabourJames Hamilton Ballantyne3,338
1921 Canadian federal election: Toronto East
PartyCandidateVotes
ConservativeEdmond Baird Ryckman5,392
ProgressiveWalter Leigh Rayfield3,984
IndependentThomas Foster3,680
LabourJohn William Bruce1,822
LiberalElizabeth Bethune Kiely52